Chief Richard Grass with his Niece at peace rally in Washington D.C.

Legal Correspondence – Genocide Statement

Richard Grass, Grand Chief of the National General Council
Dated June 1995 scanned for this web site from Tribunal records


A Sovereign Nation International Re-Established at Bear Butte July 14,1991




WE THE LAKOTA/DAKOTA/NAKOTA NATION define Genocide as the following: Racism-Prejudice Bureaucracy …………………… . ………………….. Historians (third party)’

Discrimination-In rules, regulations …………..Privacy Privilege-Illusions voting Citizenship



Decisive decision by the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota Nations Tribunal, to the parties cited: the

Governments, the administrations of the Holy See: The Vatican of Rome, Italy, Canada and the USA.

RACISM-PREJUDICED BUREAUCRACY-DISCRIMINATION- is present in many areas such as Health. Education. Housing, Employment, and denied participation in political representation, criminal justice and the police— High infant mortality rate and low life expectancy among people of color are due to unequal access to health care. A lack of medical insurance because of lack of employment and lack of money and most of all the discriminatory practices in the medical profession and education. Economic inequalities generate segregation, creating a sub-class of citizens or what these colonizers describe or define their definitive work for dual-citizenship or Quasi-citizen ____ otherwise you will be a subject of the U.S. jurisdiction under Federal laws which include the Indian Reservations, illusioned as a sovereign nation and subject to jurisdiction of the imposed states next to the imposed reservations. All of these also apply to prejudice and bureaucratic systems. We can say a human group of psychologically racist parts of organs that are as a whole, pan of the human race that have been assuming and advocating for a superior race of people through the Genocide of other races through Bio-Diversity and mainly through genetic engineering. For too long we have been isolated and victimized by a foreign Bureaucratic Corporate system of the Government(s) of the USA, Canada and the Vatican. Worst of all. ( they) put our people on reservations with the threat of use of force. These reservations are concentration camps and economic dislocation which is automatic Genocide.

Denied the use of their Allodial lands which we have two million miles of in Canada, and resources-a gross injustice of the three conspirators. They put us on their welfare which is. Genocide, while they stole our nations gold and wealth.

GENOCIDE is present at all times, especially when you hold guns to peoples heads, which of course could be psychologically and physically affected, by imposing laws on-people with a false jurisdiction with a threat of U.S. force at all times by imposed city municipal laws, imposed county laws, imposed states and their laws, and imposed Federal laws. All are illegal here with false jurisdiction, with a threat of use of force at all times. These laws are backed up with a Constitution and a standing military, starting with the local police or law enforcement, county-sheriff. Dept. of Game Fish and Wildlife Law enforcement. Federal park and forest rangers, Federal Bureau of Land Management, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency. Federal Management Agency, State National Guard, U.S. military-Army. Navy, Air Force. Marines.

Chief Richard Grass

Other links regarding the subject of genocide:

Destroying Indigenous Populations – Report to UN – Dated May 2012

“A sincere effort was made to develop the type of school that would destroy tribal ways.” – Daniel Dorcester, Superintendent of Indian Schools, 1889

“There are only two classes of people: Indians and those who live off the Indians.” Oklahoma, 1917; – a U.S. Senator speaking about the natural resources that support the United States economy and the U.S. Citizens.

“As near as I can figure out, it’s about like the negroes down South. You can’t let them get the upper hand.” Police Chief of Martin, SD; 1963, speaking about the Lakota on Pine Ridge, regarding the 1963 Jurisdictional Bill “Wounded Knee 1963”

“It has been said of the missionaries that when they arrived they had only the Book and we had the land. Now we have the Book and they have the land” – Vine Deloria, Jr. 1970’s speaking about the Holy Rosary Church as thought to be the largest single land owner on Pine Ridge

“First exterminate the buffalo. Then exterminate the Sioux – every man, woman, and child.” – General Sheridan, 1870’s

“The white man made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they only kept but one, they promised to take our land, and they took it.” Red Cloud

“…something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people’s dream died there, it was a beautiful dream. The nation’s hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer and the sacred tree is dead.” – Black Elk

“Native peoples are referred to as “savages” by Anglo-American writers. “Savage” does not necessarily refer only to violence. Europeans were not opposed to violence. Most references to savagery I have found were made in the context of observing native land ownership and land use concepts. Indians were “savage” because they did not want to be homesteaders, because they opposed private ownership of land…”

“…Colonial institutions are contradictory to the development of well-balanced social institutions which control relations among people. The European concept of the nation-state, the concept of national sovereignty came about with the capitalist economic development. The Indian concept of sovereignty was and is qualitatively different. The Sioux say, “this is our country.” To the European, that would mean something with a hierarchical political system and power in relation to other countries.

What basically constitutes a nation is a common language, a common land base, and a common culture. That is all. that is sovereignty. .” page 67 ” The Great Sioux Nation by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz

“Let them eat grass.” – Andrew J. Myrick, 1862, storekeeper at Indian Trading Post on Lower Sioux Agency, Minnesota, told Dakota who asked for credit until annuities came into the agency. Event precipitated the “Sioux Uprising of 1862” in Minnesota. Myrick was later found dead with his mouth full of grass.

Surviving Genocide
Pre-History Events and Historical Timeline:

From Lakota Freedom to Oppression and Colonization of the Lakota
By Debra White Plume
(with a few dates corrected and/or added to link with other relevant pages regarding our true history) which we pray, peacefully, resolutely work toward, and anticipate as we walk in a sacred manner, will ultimately conclude with The Return of Lakota Freedom and full expression of Sovereignty upon Sacred Lands to bless ALL our relations – Mitakuye Oyasin

Click here to view 15 minute video released in 2010 at Ted that gives photo documentation to the following timeline entitled: Aaron Huey: America’s native prisoners of war

Long, long ago the Lakota received spiritual guidance to understand the names of the stars. From then on our people have lived according to the belief of Sacred Above is Sacred Below, and we re-enact on Mother Earth what is acted out in the stars, responding to the guidance and direction given to us by the spirits and Tunkasila.

Long, Long ago the Lakota received the White Buffalo Calf Pipe sent by Tunkasila to teach us how to live according to the teachings of Pte San Win, who was sent here with these messages of the natural way of life from Tunkasila – that the people may LIVE! Thus we respectfully consider all life expressions as relatives (not “resources”)

Traditional Spiritual peoples who walk thus in a sacred manner, speak and live by truth and the natural laws, and await a good day for all good hearts to awaken to effective ways and lifestyles in which to live in peace, walk again, respectfully, as relatives with all creation. Until this day arrives, we present this outline on the sad history of how two legged have conducted themselves in the imbalance of greed which they have called “manifest destiny” which is out of harmony with the natural way.

1492 – Christopher Columbus lands in South America. See “Thanksgiving Day Legacy” page for details.

1650 – Vanguard of the old Saones (Sioux) living on the West side of the Missouri River. Also frequenting the Black Hills area, remained there until around 1750; “after that they had secured the Powder River country which reached to the Big Horn range; …their… power went as far a the Big horn river to the west of hat range, and as far north as the Yellowstone. The territory west of the Black Hills was splendid buffalo pasture, although it was disputed by the Crows, no mean antagonists. For at least a hundred years the Teton-Sioux had been practically supreme. Now the shadow of the long Knives – the white men – had fallen across it.” From John Grass manuscript by Angela A. Green Boyleyn

1755 – Big Elk is born

1787 – Northwest Ordinance Act of Congress declares that the land and property of Indian Tribes shall never be taken from them without their consent.

1790 – 1834 – Trade and Intercourse Act provides the U.S. Government with tools to enforce its regulatory authority over its citizens in their interactions with Indian tribes. [Example: 1823 – “Discovery Title” Johnson vs. McIntosh, 1823 Supreme Court ruling (ruling was made independently by the U.S. Court, unbeknownst to any of the Indian Nations still occupying their indigenous lands) . By the doctrine of “Discovery Title” the Indian Nations of North America and their Traditional Councils were stripped of their human rights and the power to convey title to land to anyone without the consent of the United States. Henceforth the Nations enjoy “Aboriginal Title,” and the location, extent, use and occupancy of their land, and the human rights of their members become subject to the laws of the Congress and the Courts of the United States subject only to the Constitution of the United States. Click here to learn how this occurred.]

1794 – French traders in Lakota country. Alcohol introduced to Lakota.

1799 – Lakota obtain guns from traders.

1803 – Louisiana Purchase announced.

1804 – Lewis & Clark travel along Missouri River, meet “Sioux” people.

“Government officials at the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804 considered the native occupation of the American continent to be the chief impediment to the creation of the new World. And while Thomas Jefferson is well known for being fascinated by and supportive of the so-called Indians, he also recognized that they represented a threat to westward expansion. While Lewis and Clark were gathering information about native peoples and exploring potential trade routes west, Jefferson was developing a plan to get the natives out of the way – in what would later become a government policy known as Indian Removal.

The first component of his plan involved encouraging natives to adopt agricultural practices, which would reduce their territorial hunting areas. He hoped then that government agents would be able to convince natives to sell their surplus land.

The second component was an amplification of the first and involved encouraging natives to adopt a European-style agricultural economy in hopes that they would become dependent on trade with the European settlers. That dependence, in turn, could be used as against natives who resisted selling their land.

The third component of his plan involved establishing government trading posts near native settlements. His hope, in this case, was that natives could be fooled into spending themselves into debt. That debt, in turn, would be forgiven in exchange for tribal lands, which would be appropriated by the federal government. Many tribes, including members of the Choctaw, Creek, and Cherokee tribes, willfully adopted European culture. They assimilated thoroughly, building schools and churches and creating government structures that resembled those of the United States of America.

But Jefferson and agents of the American government met with increasing resistance from other tribes. In 1803 – the same year that the Louisiana Purchase was announced, and the same year that Lewis was chosen as the leader of the westward expedition – Jefferson sent a letter to the then governor of the Indiana Territory, William Henry Harrison, outlining his plan for removing the remaining resistant natives.

‘To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by cession of lands…In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us as citizens of the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. The former is certainly the termination of their history most happy for themselves; but in the whole course of this, it is essential to cultivate their love. As to their fear, we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be foolhardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, the seizing of the whole country of that tribe, and driving them across the Mississippi, as the only condition of peace, would be an example to others, and a furtherance of our final consolidation.’ ” this is one of many quotable quotes from the 2011 book entitled “The Supressed History of America” by Paul Schrag and Xaviant Haze published by Bear and Company

1807 – Chief Red Shirt is killed.

1810 – American traders in Lakota country.

1814 – Man Afraid of His Horses is Born.

1815 – Oohenopas and Oompah, The Moose sign (ancestors of John Grass) treaty. First trading post established in Lakota country. Hehaka Tanka, the Big Elk, was the son of the Moose. He was also an Oohenopa-Saone. He signed the Treaties of 1815, 1825 and 1830.”White history has much to say about The Big Elk, although it spelled his name Ong-pa-tonka and Oupaatanga. He was sixty-six years old when he was in Washington in 1821, being one of the few Indians, according to white records, who knew his correct age. He was born in 1755. Opposite his picture, which appears in Aboriginal Portfolio of individual Indians of the 1825 Treaty, is a description which states in part, “There are few aboriginal Chiefs whose character may be contemplated with so much complacency as that of Big Elk, who is not only a able but a highly estimable man. He is principal chief of his nation. He is known for fair dealing, hospitality and friendship. He is a diplomat. Always asked the advice of his people….He is an orator and gave the funeral oration for Black Buffalo, a Minneconjou chief, in 1811, which white history recorded. The Big Buffalo died in 1846 at the age of ninety-one years.” He became an old-old-man chief.

1816-1835 – Very little contact with white people; extremely few white people traveling through Lakota Country.

1818 – U.S. Government passes act to place a Federal Agent with each Indian Nation.
Small pox, Cholera, Veneral Disease first besiege the Lakota.

1821 – Red Cloud is born.

1822 – First alcohol related killing among the Lakota.

1823 – U.S. military come into Lakota county.

1823 – In 1823 one of the last traditional spiritual great Seven Council Fires gathering was held in the Grove of Tall Oaks near present Redding, South Dakota. Attending were the seven tribes of Tetons, Prairie Dwellers, and their close relatives, the six tribes of Minnesota Sioux known as Isanti-Sioux, who still held to their ancient origin and recognized the centuries-long admonition “to be always together like the stars in the Big Dipper and the Seven Little Sisters (Pleiades)”. Angela A. Green Boyleyn

1824 – General Ashley begins to venture deeper into Lakota country.

1825 – First steamboat comes into Lakota country on Missouri River.

1825 – Tatanka Tanka, The Big Buffalo, was the first son of The Big Elk. He was also an Oohenopa-Saone. He signed the Treaty of 1825.”

“An interesting bit of history told this writer by Chief Standing Alone is that Tatanka Tanka also had a white wife and they had a child whom they named “The Holy Peace Pipe On His Head.” This child became the next chief of the Oohenopa gens.” Angela B.Green Boleyn

1825-1835 – American Fur Company has a monopoly on trade with the Lakota.

First marriages between Lakota women and white men: General Ashley’s civilian companions became known as the Rocky Mountain Fur Company which was unique as the men had Lakota wives.

1829 – Indian history also states that Chief Barefoot, as he was generally known to North American Indians, was in Washington in 1830, following the Treaty of Prairie duChien, in behalf of the Minnesota Sioux. At that time no land had been demanded of the Tetons.

“Andrew Jackson, a famous Indian fighter, was President. The year before he had put through Congress The Indian Removal Act which forcibly drove thousands of Indians from their eastern homelands into the west – the southern Indians eventually going into western Kansas and eastern Oklahoma. It is not thought that Barefoot knew about the Indian Removal Act in 1830, but he had had an unpleasant experience with Colonel Henry Leavenworth in 1823, and had seen the Colonel try to remove Elk Man as chief by making a “paper chief” of old Bare Bibs, so he as wary of the white man’s intentions.” Angela B. Green Boleyn

1830 – The Indian Removal Act used by President Andrew Jackson in the forced relocations of thousands of Indians from East of the Mississippi, to clear the land of them for use by Americans and Black slaves. Indians removed to permanent Indian Territory.

90,000 buffalo robes sold by wasicu hunters in the East.

Small pox kills thousands across the Great Plains area.

1830-1845 – Lakota accept ware pipe brought by Cheyenne against Pawnee.

1832 – Indian Bureau established in the War Department.

1835 – Worcester v. Georgia Supreme Court case Justice John Marshal rules that Indian Tribes are distinct, independent, political communities who retained minimal rights to self government (a legal benchmark against which U.S. Government action may be measured in the future).

1837 – John Grass #2 is born. Mato Watapke, Charging Bear, the first son of Used As Their Shield, is better known to white history as ‘John Grass’ – John Grass of Sioux wars and treaty fame. By this time the government had negotiated ninety-four treaties with the Indians of the United States, and three years before that date the first mounted dragoons – the first American cavalry to see the Plains was a reality. Even so the Teton-Sioux were still at the height of their power and glory.

1840 – Beaver trapping declines. Many traders move out, many trading posts close down.

Many trappers/traders siding with Pawnee. Lakota begin to kill and chase off all whites in Lakota country.

1841 – Chief Barefoot entertains the well known Jesuit missionary, Father Jean Pierre De Smet, in his camp where the priest performed many baptisms. Father De Smet left a lively record of his visit. Lakota begin to harass and kill white emigrants traveling through Lakota country. Red Cloud kills Bull Bear.

1842 – First wagon trains of emigrants begin traveling through Lakota country (18 wagons, 100 people).

1845 – Buffalo pushed beyond North Platte River by emigrants passing through. Lakota believe buffalo hers are beginning to dwindle. First time Lakota hunt is affected by emigrants. Lakota are very angry now about wagon trains coming through Lakota country.

First time U.S. military sent to Lakota country as show of force to “quiet the tribes.” No warfare, a council is held with Colonel SW Kearney.

1845 – 1846 – 30 Oglala killed by Crow.

1846 – Buffalo becoming scarce. Winter camps going hungry.

1847 – 110,000 buffalo robes sold by wasicu hunters in the East.

Oglala kill 83 Pawnee.

1848 – U.S. Congress and Christian organizations meet in Washington D.C. to discuss bringing colonization efforts of Indian people into full force.

1849 – Oregon Trail: rush of emigrants to California Gold Rush.

Cholera brought via steamboat begins to kill Lakota. Fur trade era declines in Lakota country. U.S. Government purchase Ft. Laramie from traders, garrison filled with troops.

Indian Bureau transferred from War Department to the Department of the Interior.

1851 – Ft. Laramie Treaty with the United States. U.S. prohibits sales of alcohol to Indians. Waha-canka-ya-pi, Used As Their Shield, the grass (John Grass #1) With his father attended the signing of the Treaty of 1851.

At the age of fourteen John Grass #2 is taken by his father and grandfather to the Laramie Treaty of 1851 and there witnessed at first hand “the pattern of the white bother’s behavior”. As a youth and young warrior he knew the wonder of this shining land even as he realized the blight that threatened it.

“Mato Watapke, Charging Bear, the first son of Used As Their Shield, is better known to white history as ‘John Grass’ – John Grass of Sioux wars and treaty fame. To the Sioux he was known as the Sovereign who “with the Pipe held before him”, led his people along the compulsory new road white men had made with their sharp guns and cannon.” Angela B. Green Boleyn

the book tells a version of history not yet told – John Grass’ observations, life experiences as well as stories about these times documented from many interviews with Elders and Chiefs who witnessed these events. These manuscripts, documented by Angela A. Green Boleyn were gifted to Grass family descendents and kept in our family for release at a time, as John grass requested, when this information would not bring harm to any Grass descendents who still work on treaty issues for the L.D.N. Nation. We hope we live in this time, when people of all nations are open and eager to learn the truth of our nations’ history, struggle and hopefully a peaceful resolution. Perhaps the transcribing and publishing of the 800 page manuscript we hold will help the L.D.N. nation and the world to reach a better place of understanding in regaining the Balance, Harmon, Abundance and Peace our nation once lived.
“John Grass
American Indian Patriot”
The Sihasapa Story – written by Angela A. Green Boleyn
How the book came to be Introduction with the books’ Acknowledgements and Legend
Table of Contents Forward – A Premise to History – The Sihasapa Story
Our Mother lands and her “resources” continue to be occupied and stripped of their sacred and intricate riches, and no monetary benefits nor even a portion of the “profits” from these multi-million dollar generating activities by the dominating culture have yet found their way to benefit or grow our traditional spiritual sovereign nation. If you would like to donate funds to help reach towards our Mission Statement and Goals please send check or money order to us in the Center of the Nation at:

Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Nation
P.O. Box 144
Mato Tipila (Devils Tower), WY 82714
We are NOT a 501c operating under the dominating culture, but exist under careful, thoughtful compliance and currently accepted accounting practices well within compliance of the laws of such under the dominating culture of the U.S. CAN YOU HELP WITH A DONATION ? us PUBLISH this long awaited manuscript into book

But for now…..without inclusion, clarifications, perspectives, additions of important events and dates of what we hope to later add in the John Grass book from the well researched “Indian” accounts,
The following dates and brief history continues below, the timeline of the genocide of our nation from Debra White Plume’s research:

1853 – Killing battles between Lakota and military at Ft. Laramie.

1854 – August 17 a cow on Mormon wagon train is killed by a Sicangu near Ft. Laramie, Wyoming. Lt. Fleming assigned to go to Sicangu camp to seize Sicangu who killed cow. Gratton and 29 men killed. News of Gratton and his men being killed cause white people in area to demand strong military force to march on Lakota. Lakota and all “Sioux” are now known as HOSTILE INDIANS.

1854 – 1857 – White settlers forming towns along Missouri River and Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Dakota Territory.

Twenty three steamboats in operation up to Sioux City, Iowa.

White settlers begin demand for Lakota land. Whites along the Missouri River begin to scream that Lakota should be removed to Indian Territory. Sentiment against Lakota being stirred up as the Lakota will not sell or give up land to settlers.

Yankton Treaty with U.S. ceding lands along Missouri River. Other L.D.N. Nations furiously protest the treaty, denounce the Yankton.

1858 – All L.D.N. leaders make policy with each other to oppose white encroachment on their land.

1862 – Santee rise up against whites in Minnesota – the Dakota Conflict.

Due to extreme hunger, they ask a store keeper for food. He said “Let them eat grass.” – Andrew J. Myrick, 1862, storekeeper at Indian Trading Post on Lower Sioux Agency, Minnesota, told Dakota who asked for credit until annuities came into the agency. Event precipitated the “Sioux Uprising of 1862” in Minnesota. Myrick was later found dead with his mouth full of grass.

Later, 1500 Sioux imprisoned, 303 given the death penalty after the trials. 38 are hung. The rest are pardoned by President Lincoln.



Wasicu buffalo hunters begin mass slaughter of buffalo for the hide.

Beginning of seriously heavy traffic on “Overland Road” to the North and “Santa Fe Road” to the South. Lakota very much concerned about white encroachment.

1863 – Military leadership obsessed with the idea that military force is best way to handle Lakota. Military leadership on the plains feels D.C. officials do not have a realistic view of the Lakota situation.

1864 – Oxen herd run off ranch near Denver, Colorado. Cheyenne camping near are blamed. Cheyenne battle with Colorado Calvary near Denver. General Curtis orders Col. Chivington to punish the Cheyenne; General Curtis orders General Mitchell to order Lakota to get out of the area where Col. Chivington is looking for the Cheyenne. For two months the Cheyenne, Arapaho and Lakota attack and kill white settlers across Nebraska and to the outskirts of Denver, breaking the road, blocking all travel, re-routing stage lines and mail lines. Complete failure by the military to even locate on “Indian” during this time outrages the military.

Col. Chivington comes at dawn upon a sleeping Cheyenne camp at Sand Creek and massacres the Cheyenne. Cheyenne take ware pipe to the Lakota and Arapaho. Lakota accept war pipe brought by Cheyenne. Lakota lead war party of Cheyenne, Arapaho and Lakota and attack Julesburg, Colorado’ civilians and soldiers all killed, horse herd taken, town burned to the ground. Along the Platter River war parties attack and burn ranches, stage stations, wagon trains, whites were killed on sight. 100 miles of road is wrecked, all buildings burned to the ground, horse and cattle herds captured.

Battle of Kill Deer Mountain between Lakota and General Sulley. Sitting Bull’s first encounter with U.S. military. Site now a North Dakota State Park.

1865 – Lakota attack Calvary at Platte Bridge.Stage companies, freighting firms, white people demand U.S. Gov. subdue the Lakota. Lakota kill 4 row. Lakota Make plans to gather big war party to attack all whites along the North Platte River. Two Face, an Oglala, captured and hung at Ft. Laramie.

7th Calvary capture and march 185 lodges of Lakota toward Ft. Kearney. Lakota fight their way out of forced march and get away. Col. Moonlight pursues them. The Lakota run off his horses causing him and his men to walk 80 miles to Ft. Laramie.

U.S. Government mounts the “Powder River Expedition” and there are battles with the Lakota, Arapahoe and Cheyenne along the Platte River, Tongue River, Powder River, Niobrara River, Wolf Mountains, Little Missouri River, Rawhide Creek, and Little Powder River.

General Sulley begins pursuit of Sitting Bull, who eludes him.

The Lakota very happy at the end of the summer of 1865, Their camps full of horses and mules branded “U.S.” and they had many captured guns from the Calvary.

In D.C. plans made for military to come to the Plains as Civil War ending.

The Republican Congress begin to change tactics from military strategy to Christian policy to dealing with the “Indians on the Plains.”

General Sulley spends a million dollars in pursuit of Sitting Bull throughout summer months and accomplishes nothing. General Curtis becomes Chairman of the Sioux Peace Commission. Peace Policy signed in October 1865 by Sioux bands friendly to the white man.

The Peace Policy was deemed ineffective in D.C. as the “hostiles” did not sign it and had not heard of it.

1860’s – Intense pressure mounted on U.S. Congress to acquire lands of he Lakota for the immigrants being shipped West to build the railroads. Railroad companies need development of settlements in the West to sustain their railroad. Christian churches scream demands that the tribal mass be broken up, allowing Christian Missionaries greater potential for converts from the Lakota-termed heathen – to Christian religion.

1866 – U.S. enters negotiations with Lakota to open Powder River country for emigrants. Red Cloud demand Bozeman Trail close. U.S. refuses. Lakota declares war. War parties attack military and travelers in Powder River Country throughout 1866. Lakota so hostile in Powder River country no white man will enter that territory. Union Pacific and Kansas Pacific Railroads advancing rapidly into Lakota country.

1867 – Capt. Fetterman tells his superiors “Give me 10 men and I will ride through the while Sioux Nation.” Lakota wipe out Capt. Fetterman at Ft. Phil Kearney and 81 men. Peace Commission begin peddling a Treaty in Lakota country.

General Hancock sent to the plains to advocate the Peace Policy, paraded his troops into a Lakota camp. The Lakota fled. Hancock believed them to be hostile and burned their camp. The Lakota in retaliation began to raid all white settlers and military forts. Gen. Hancock turned Custer and the 7th Calvary loose. The Lakota raids grow in number and in hostility. Lakota kill a party of U.S. soldiers.

Wagon Box fight at Ft. Kearney. Washington abandons treaty of 1865 with the Sioux. It is suspected by officials in Washington there is gold in the Black Hills. Commissioner of Indian Affairs spreads his belief “that it is cheaper to kill a culture than a people.”

1868 – 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty is signed. Washita Massacre.

Article 12 of 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty: the Government promised that no cession of all or any part of the Great Sioux Reservation would have any force or validity “unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians, occupying or interested in the same…”

Custer massacres at Washita the survivors of the Sand Creek Massacre.

1870s’ – “First exterminate the buffalo. Then exterminate the Sioux – every man, woman, and child.” – General Sheridan, 1870’s

1871 – Suspension of Treaty making attached to annual Indian Appropriations Act, declaring no further recognition of any Indian Treaty.

1873 – Catholic Priest Jean deSmet illegally enters Black Hills, reports the presence of gold there.

1874 – Custer and 7th Calvary sent to Black Hills to confirm presence of gold. Peace Commission sent to Lakota with orders to negotiate purchase of Black Hills region. Negotiations fail. U.S. Government begins plan of military seizure of Black Hills.

1875 – Peace Commission of 1874 reported as failure. Affairs of the Sioux shifted to War Department. War Department announced any Lakota not at Army posts by January 1876 would be declared hostile

1876 – Starve or Sell Black Hills. Intense pressure on Lakota to sell Black Hills. Most Lakota did not come in to Army Posts as ordered (of course many had not even heard of this “order”). This was publicized in the East as an Act of War against the U.S.

June 17 – Battle on Rosebud Creek. General Crook defeated

June 25 – Battle at the Little Big Horn, known to Lakota as “Battle of the Greasy Grass”. Colonel Custer attacked homes and families camped ther, and 7th Calvary wiped out.

1876 – 1877 – Col. McKenzie tracks down and kills many Lakota.

1877 – All Lakota had come to Army Posts, except a group of Hunkpapa with Sitting Bull and Gall, and a group of Oglala with Crazy Horse.

Sitting Bull, Gall and their people go to Canada.

Feb. 28, 1877 – Congress takes Unceded Lands inside 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty lands.

Overnight the Great Sioux Nation land base shrinks from 134 million acres to less than 15 million acres.

May 17, 1877- Crazy Horse came in but went out again.

Sept. 6, 1887 – Crazy Horse brings his people peacefully in to Ft. Robinson. (starving, no Buffalo or game left to hunt). Crazy Horse is killed.

1879 – Carlisle Indian School opened at Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

Beginning era of Tribal Police at Pine Ridge under Indian Agent McGillicuddy.

1881 – Last Sun Dance (reported) held among the Oglala Lakota, there are 10,000 Oglala and Sicangu in camp. Spotted Tail is killed by Crow Dog.

1882 – The Lakota Sun Dance is outlawed by U.S. Congress.

1883 – Ex Parte Crow Dog. The decision rendered in this case was that the U.S. had no jurisdictional authority to prosecute an Indian for killing another Indian decision led to the extension of Federal Jurisdiction over Indian Country via the 1885 Major Crimes Act. Secretary of Interior authorizes establishment of Court of Indian Offenses for use on reservations. on an Indian reservation This court

1885 – Major Crimes Act. U.S. Government unilaterally extended its jurisdiction over felonies occurring among “Indians” in Indian Territory. Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding school era begins in full force. B.I.A. schools have jails.

1887 – First step in Assimilation Policy begins with passage of General Allotment Act. Act replaced collective tribal use of land with Anglo Saxxon system of individual property ownership. Opened up “surplus” land, after land assigned to each individual Lakota.

U.S. Government through B.I.A. “retained” control of land held by full blood Lakota for period of 25 years. Act also beginning of blood-quantum among Lakota.

1889 – Great Sioux Reservation is broken up into six separate reservations and substantially reduces L.D.N. land holdings.

“A sincere effort was made to develop the type of school that would destroy tribal ways.” – Daniel Dorcester, Superintendent of Indian Schools, 1889

1890 – Ghost Dance begins in Lakota country.

Sitting Bull killed. Wounded Knee Massacre.

“…something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people’s dream died there, it was a beautiful dream. The nation’s hoop is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer and the sacred tree is dead.” – Black Elk

1891 – General Allotment Act of 1887 amended to give authority to B.I.A. to lease Lakota land.

1890 – 1920’s – Many illegal land cessions among tribes in U.S.

1900-1910 – Dr. Charles Eastman, Santee Sioux, writes and sells books in Europe telling about the illegal taking of the Black Hills and the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre. Europeans begin to question the U.S. Government.

1903 – Lonewolf v. Hitchcock Supreme Court Case confirms that U.S. Congress has the right to break treaties; Court also broadly defines plenary power over Indian affairs.

1906 – Burke Act amended period of trust from original 25 years so that the Secretary of Interior could issue certificates of competency to individuals deemed capable of handling own affairs.

1908 – Winters Doctrine water rights for tribes/reservations.

1917 – “There are only two classes of people: Indians and those who live of the Indians.” Oklahoma, 1917; – a U.S. Senator speaking about the natural resources that support the United States economy and the U.S. Citizens.

1918 – Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania closed.

1919 – U.S. declines international meeting of League of Nations as it does not want to answer questions about the taking of the Black Hills form the Lakota or about the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre.

1920’s – B.I.A., using 1906 Burke Act, leases major portion of remaining lands held by “incompetent” Indian individuals.

1921 – Standard Oil Corporation finds major oil deposits on Navajo land.

1922 – Ralph Case and Associates hired by eight Sioux tribes in the Black Hills Claim.

1923 – B.I.A. in Navajo land forms some Navajo people into Navajo Grand Council against wishes of traditional Elders, who rejected lease agreement with Standard Oil. First act of business of Navajo Grand Council declares allegiance to U.S. Government. Second act of business is to lease their oil to Standard Oil Corporation. From then on the traditional Navajo form of government and traditional Navajo leaders are ignored by U.S.

1924 – Indian Citizenship Act unilaterally conferred U.S. citizenship on all Indians “missed” or excluded by the General Allotment Act, also seen as act of Congressional gratitude for loyal service by thousands of Indian men in World War I.

[Indian Citizenship Act succinctly stripped “tribes” of any recognized or presumed “sovereignty” – thus unilaterally dissolving “officially” the Oceti Sakowin – Seven Council Fires in the U.S. law books.]

Above photo Courtesy of “Native Sun News” – The Official Paper of the Oyate, December 5-11, 2012

1927- Jails in the B.I.A. boarding schools are closed.

1928-32 – Senate Indian Committee of U.S. Congress conducts comprehensive investigation of the conditions of “Indians”

1928 – Merriam Report published. Recommends tribal lands be kept in block form; tribes be answerable to Secretary of Interior. Attributed the wretched conditions of Native America to such legislation as the Allotment Act of 1887, and blamed the B.I.A. for helping to suppress Indian culture. Following the report, President Roosevelt named John Collier in 1933 to create a “New Deal”, this will become the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) of 1934.

1931 – Annual average per capita income on Pine Ridge is $152.80.

1934 – Indian Reorganization Act (aka Howard-Wheeler Act) passed by U.S. Congress supplants traditional government. On Pine Ridge, 1,169 voted YES; 1,075 voted NO out of an electorate of 4,075. 94 votes put in the IRA, drafted by Collier and then radically changed by Congressional committees and sub-committees.

1937 – Shosone v. United States Supreme Court case rules that the 5th Amendment of U.S. Constitution requires Congress to pay just compensation for takings of tribal land.

1940-1958 – Navajo received $29 million in royalties and bonuses for oil and gas.

1940 – 1980 – Shoshone and Arapaho oil is thieved with Federal Government monitoring.

1942 – U.S. “borrowed” the Gunnery Range Area in the Badlands on Pine Ridge Reservation for use in training Army gunner, implementing forced removal of Lakota people living there.

Court of Claims dismisses Black Hills Claim.

Average per capita income on Pine Ridge is $120.00 (one-sixth of the average South Dakotan per capita average income).

1944 – National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) formed by B.I.A. Indian employees and Indian leaders from different tribes.

1946 – U.S. Congress passes Indian Claims Commission Act designed to insure that indigenous nations which historically suffered illegal taking of their lands at the hands of the U.S. receive justice; a quasi-judicial agency created by Congress.

1948 – Convention on Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide.

1950’s – U.S. Congress seeks to repeal 1934 IRA because with its existence it becomes onerous for Congress to slip through legislation adverse to the tribes, Congress seeks a way to abolish tribal government by getting rid of the IRA.

1950 – Ralph Case re-files the Black Hills Claim in the Indian Claims Commission. [Docket 74 was filed August 15, 1950, under the Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946. (see copy of documentation here)]

1950 -1970’s- B.I.A. as key figure in leases and permits for grazing lands, rights-of-way, long term leases, timber stands, fisheries, hydroelectric power sites; also exploration and use of uranium, oil, coal, and natural gas on Indian lands.

1953 – American liberals view reservations as unacceptable bastions of segregation and separation. Believe Indians should be freed from the bondage of tribalism to join the melting pot.

1954 – 1980 – U.S. Congress begins terminating Federal relationship with tribes, 109 native nations terminated.

1954 – P.L. 280 further terminated Federal relationships with tribes by placing them under state jurisdiction in California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska.

Indian Claims Commission rejects Black Hills Claims.

1956 – Court of Claims affirms Indian Claims Commission decision on Black Hills.

Oglala, Rosebud, and Standing Rock Sioux Tribes replace Ralph Case with Arthur Lazarus, Jr. and Richard Schifter and Marvin Snosky as attorneys on Black Hills Claim case.

1957 – On motion of new Sioux lawyers, Court of Claims vacates prior proceedings in Black Hills Claim.

1961 – Sioux counsel file amended petitions dividing Sioux claims into the Black Hills claim and the 1868 Treaty case.

“Declaration of Indian Purpose” 420 Indian from 67 tribes gather and develop the “Declaration of Indian Purpose” which called for U.S. Government recognition of the right of tribes to participate in decision making process of policies and programs that would affect them.

1962 – 200 tons of radioactive mill tailings wash into Cheyenne River, indirect water source for Pine Ridge Reservation.

National Indian Youth Council formed.

1962 – 1963 – United Sioux Tribes formed to fight a jurisdictional bill in South Dakota state legislature under Governor Archie Gubbrud. South Dakota legislative effort to reduce sovereign authority of the Sioux Tribes. Sioux leaders vow to fight the effort dubbed “Wounded Knee 1963”. OST and Rosebud Sioux Tribe gather 18,000 signature to put Bill on ballot. Bill defeated 4 to 1.

“As near as I can figure out, it’s about like the negroes down South. You can’t let them get the upper hand.” Police Chief of Martin, SD; 1963, speaking about the Lakota on Pine Ridge, regarding the 1963 Jurisdictional Bill “Wounded Knee 1963”

1964 – May 1964 Capital Conference of Indian Poverty in Washington, D.C. lobby effort resulted in Indians being included as beneficiaries in President Johnson’s Economic Opportunity Act as keystone in War on Poverty. Proposals and budgets approved, received federal dollars to run programs on reservation. First time tribes could run programs that formerly were under the B.I.A.. This ushered in the era of “self-determination.”

National Indian Youth Council lashes out at NCAI that NCAI is letting “white men” rule reservation and control Indian lives. Prompts NCAI leadership to reconvene and review rules to tribes.

November 17, 1964 “Oglala Sioux Tribal Council” held meeting at Pine Ridge and wrote Resolution 64-51 which was approved and signed by
1. Enos Poor Bear, President of the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council
2. Edwin Red Door, President of the Black Hills Sioux Nation Council
along with the following persons, appointed by the Tribal Council to represent the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council in the Black Hills Sioux Nation Council:
1. Moses Two Bulls
2. Charley Red Cloud
3. Charley Under Baggage
Tribal Council Attorney:
1. Arthur Lazarus, Jr.
…accepting the Black Hills for sale since Resolution No. 64-51 was adopted by the Black Hills Sioux Nation Council.(established by Tribal Councils of the Sioux Nation on November 1, 1956.)

The Black Hills Sioux Nation Council is not a Treaty Council. The Black Hills Sioux Nation Council was to sell Black Hills under the organization of Secretary of Interior supervision. The resolutions of the council are not binding until it shall have received the approval of the Superintendent of the Agency and Secretary of the Interior.
Note: This was in direct conflict of Article 12 of April 29, 1868 Treaty, and thus, thankfully, did not succeed.

1966 – Senator George McGovern of South Dakota leads appeal in Congress for Lakota and all tribes to have a louder voice in their destiny. While his early efforts failed due to desire of U.S. and B.I.A. to control Indian lands and resources, Congress soon made available to tribes such programs as Health, Education, Welfare, Housing, Urban Development, and Office of Equal Opportunity Programs, this begins the era of increasing in small increments what was touted as “self determination.”

1967 – 15 year old Sicangu Lakota Jancita Eagle Deer reports to her high school principal that she was raped the night before by William Janklow, Director of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe’s Legal Services Program. Janklow would later become South Dakotas’ Governor.

1968 – P.L. 280 (State jurisdiction over tribes) amended to require consent of tribes prior to action.

Court of Claims decides Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation v. United States

1969 – Alcatraz Island Occupation to protest treaty violations and living conditions of Indian Nations (San Francisco, California November 20). Richard Deo Grass (Oglala-Lakota-Sihasapa) is there – speaks. (This occupation was not related in any way to the American Indian Movement, i.e. A.I.M.)

Above Article Courtesy of Native Sun News – December 5-11, 2012

1970 – Valuation trials in Black Hills Claim.

1970’s –Political activism seen as main hope for Native Nations by Indians across the U.S.A. B.I.A. is viewed as negative. Attempt to occupy B.I.A. offices in Colorado (21 arrests); Illinois (23 arrests); Minnesota (25 arrests); Pennsylvania (30 arrests); California (12 arrests). Fishing rights, water rights, land rights become issues individuals are willing to go to jail for. Pomo, Pit River, Navajo, Hopi, Lakota, Chippewa, Iroquis, and Mohawk individuals are arrested for occupations – there are protests across the U.S.A.

“It has been said of the missionaries that when they arrived they had only the Book and we had the land. Now we have the Book and they have the land” – Vine Deloria, Jr. 1970’s speaking about the Holy Rosary Church as thought to be the largest single land owner on Pine Ridge

Mario Gonzalez, Chief Judge of Rosebud Sioux Tribal Court, granted Dennis Banks’ petition to disbar from the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Court William Janklow for the rape of Jancita Eagle Deer.

1971 – May Flower Replica Occupation.

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of Congress converted native nations into state charters with U.S. assuming ownership of their 44 million acres of land, as well as timber and oil.

Alcatraz Island Occupation to protest treaty violations and living conditions of Indian Nations ends. Six men, four women, five children arrested and later released (San Francisco, California, June 11.

National Tribal Chairmen’s Association formed by B.I.A. in effort to buy off and control leadership by Johnson Administration due to the civil, human, and treaty rights movements occurring throughout U.S.

1972 – Trail of Broken Treaties to D.C.; Occupation of B.I.A. Office.

Indian Education Act.

N.D., S.D. Wyoming, Montana designation sought as national sacrifice area. Water destruction would be permanent.

Raymond Yellow Thunder, Oglala Lakota, murdered in Gordon, Nebraska. His murder brings A.I.M. to Pine Ridge at the request of his family.

Armed and unarmed confrontations between Oglala people on Pine Ridge Reservation over political, social and cultural issues.

1973 – February 27 – Wounded Knee “Liberation”. [Under the guise of liberating Indian nations from poverty and despair, with this occupation the genocide of a nation and people takes a new turn – as it turned out very similar to the murder of Chief Crazy Horse by his very “own” people. Traditional respect of kinship ties are further broken as political activism instigated and propagated from factions “within” city raised “Indians” , the village of Wounded Knee was abruptly occupied by urban “Indians” who temporarily moved there to “take over” and establish their own agenda in the name of “liberation” and restoring “treaty rights” . Through media attention they were joined by many enthusiastic “supporters” from all walks of life, who thought this occupation would somehow help “Indians”. Although it brought a spotlight to our treaty issues, it is hard to forget that the homes of peaceful Lakota individuals were occupied, ransacked and eventually destroyed. Pets and livestock were killed, personal belongings of Lakota residents were stolen and or destroyed, Wounded Knee Museum was ransacked by A.I.M. members of it’s priceless Lakota, Dakota, Nakota historical artifacts, and countless other crimes and abuses to the people residing there were perpetrated by A.I.M. members who continue to terrorize and monopolize their own “Indian-ness” for personal aggrandizement and financial gain. For complete documentation of events, court records, interviews regarding this time and its ongoing resultant destruction of a peaceful, respectful, and honorable traditional spiritually based culture of it’s potential positive ways of governance, please read “A.I.M. – American Indian Mafia” book published in 2007. Although the “work” of A.I.M. from this occupation succeeded dominating people and existing forms of governments with threats of violence and in focusing worldwide media attention on the plight of the L.D.N. nation, it failed to provide any positive or viable support, funding, or reasonable just restitution for the individuals or reputation of a culture and people robbed and victimized during the violent and hostile Wounded Knee takeover, nor has it provided any positive assistance or programs towards building, restoring, assisting or educating our people, or nation towards our effectively regaining health, well being, security nor instilling in the hearts of future generations our true respectful, harmonious, peaceful, wise and provisional traditional values].

1974 – Indian Claims Commission awards Sioux $17.5 million plus interest for taking of the Black Hills.

Andrew Fools Crow and Charlie Red Cloud sign formal Resolution of Sovereignty based on 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty, also repudiating all subsequent U.S. Congressional legislation affecting the Oglala Lakota, especially the I.R.A. of 1934 and the Citizenship Act of 1924. [resolution ignored by U.S. Government].

March: Jancita Eagle Deer found dead from hit and run accident.

April: Jancita step-mother Delphine vows to prove William Janklow raped Jancita.

December: Jancita step-mother Delphine found beaten, dies from her injuries.

1975 – Oglala, S.D. Fire Fight. Joe Stuntz killed. Two F.B.I. Agents killed.

Dick Wilson, O.S.T. President signs away legal title of Gunnery Range Badlands area to U.S. Federal Government.

U.S. Congress amends Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946 to eliminate food, rations, and provisions as allowable offsets.

Court of Claims rules that Sioux Fifth Amendment taking claim is bared by res judicata, thereby reversing Indian Claims Commission decision.

The Self-Determination and Education Act of Congress simply requires that tribes be more fully involved in the staffing of programs aimed at tribes by the Federal Government; P.L. 93-638 allows for contracting.

1977 – Leonard Peltier found guilty in deaths of two F.B.I. Agents in Oglala, 1975. No charges brought regarding the death of Joe Stuntz. Unsolved Murders on Pine Ridge

1978 – Longest Walk to DC protesting living conditions of Indian people and treaty violations.

U.S. Congress waives defense of res judicata in Black Hills Claim and provides for new trial on 5th Amendment taking issue.

American Indian Religious Freedom Act announced that “it shall be the policy of the U.S. to protect and preserve the inherent right of the freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions” of American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians.

The Supreme Court Case Oliphant vs Squamish Tribe Justice Rehnqueist opined that indigenous nations held no jurisdictional prerogatives whatsoever, criminal or civil, over non-Indians living on their reservations, further eroding native “sovereignty” [as the U.S. recognized and defined it].

Indian Child Welfare Act signed by U.S. Congress. Ends adoption and placement of Indian children to non-Indians without tribal notification and chance to place tribal children.

1979 – U.S. Department of Interior, regarding the Madison Formation water source for Pine Ridge Reservation releases report concerning uranium tailing ponds: “contamination is well beyond the safe limit for animals. Stock and humans using water would be exposed.”

Court of Claims awards Sioux $17.5 millions plus interest for taking of Black Hills.

1980 – Indian Health Service (HIS) announces well water at Slim Buttes area on Pine Ridge Reservation is contaminated at 3 times above the national safety standard. Later tested at 14 times above safety standard. Red Shirt Table, Manderson, Oglala water tested at “above acceptable” safety standards – contaminated.

Cancer rate on Pine Ridge Reservation begins to rise.

Birth defect rate on Pine Ridge Reservation begins to rise.

B.I.A. shuts down urban relocation centers.

Supreme Court affirms Court of Claims ruling in Black Hills Claim and awards Sioux $106 million. This is ruling and award is officially rejected by LDN nations’ Grand Chief Richard Grass.

Badoni v. Higginson the Supreme Court let stand a lower court ruling that a joint Navajo-Hopi effort under the American Indian Religious Freedom Act to preserve a spiritually significant site at the Rainbow Bridge was outweighed by the government interest in flooding the area. This decision not to review the case took away any chance of using as defense the guidelines under the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

1981 – Montana v. United States Supreme Court in this case held that non-Indians owning land within reservation boundaries were not subject to Crow hunting and fishing regulations. The ability of native nations to control the behavior of people residing within their boundaries was further diminished, even further than the level imposed by the Oliphant decision.

Yellow Thunder Camp established in Black Hills.

1982 – Federal Appeals Court dismissed Oglala Sioux claims against U.S. and Homestake Mining Company. Below are two 2011 photos of the “open cut” left by the Homestake Mining Company in Lead, SD, (Northern section of the sacred Black Hills) where a mountain once stood.

The previously existing mountain was once as tall as the mountain on the right of photo below (still with trees).

2010 Photos courtesy of Bunny Sings Wolf, Hillbunny Productions
Also in 1980 – The Indian Mineral Development Act of Congress at the beginning of the Regan Administration’s effort of “cost cutting” in meeting its obligations to Indian Nations, passed this act to encourage Indians in wholesale mining of their land, with waivers of environmental safeguards in order to become self-sufficient in the face of budget cuts of Reagan administration.

Black Hills Steering Committee formed by Oglala, Standing Rock, Rosebud, Crow Creek to draft federal legislation seeking a land return of federally held lands in the Black Hills region in what came to be known as the Bradley Bill.

1983 – KILI Radio begins broadcasting on and near Pine Ridge Reservation.

1983-1984 – OST Constitutional Revision.

1984 – Crow Creek and Santee Sioux Tribes vote to accept settlement award for the land taking in the 1868 Treaty Case.

1985 – United States v. Dann states that payment to Indians into a Federal Treasury account over which Indians have no control constitutes payment for lost land even though the Indians were still living on it. This decision clears the way for the eviction of Indians from family lands without receiving a cent for it (Mary and Carrie Dann, Western Shoshone sisters).

Spring 1985 – Plan of Action for Alaska Native Claims settlement drafted.

See copy below with Chief Richard Grass remarks and comments at bottom…

1985 – United States v. Dann states that payment to Indians into a federal treasury account over which Indians have no control constitutes payment for lost land even though the Indians were still living on it. This decision clears the way for the eviction of Indians from family lands without receiving a cent for it (Mary and Carrie Dann, Western Shoshone sisters).

1986 – Indian Civil Rights Act amended to allow tribal courts greater powers of penalization – up to one year imprisonment and $5,000 fines on certain types of criminal offenses.

Si Tanka Wokiksuye follows Chief Big Foots’ path from Cherry Creek to Wounded Knee under spiritual guidance.

1987 – U.S. Senator Bill Bradley introduces the first Black Hills land return legislation, the Black Hills Steering Committee work, cosponsors bill with Sen. Inouye and Udall.

Phil Stevens, supported by Pine Ridge Grey Eagle Society, Richard Grass, Oliver Red Cloud and Mario Gonzalez, drafts a $3.1 billion additional compensation package and Red Cloud and OST Council influences Gerald Clifford, Coordinator of Black Hills Steering Committee, to travel with Stevens to D.C. Sen. Bradley staffers advise the package unrealistic and counterproductive.

OST rescinds support of Bradley Bill in favor of Stevens plan.

Senator Daschle forms Open Hills Committee, as South Dakota citizens group designed to counteract the Black Hills land return legislation.

July 30, 1987 – U.S. Claims Court Docket approved stipulation of facts in Docket 74 – entered a judgment on behalf of the Sioux tribe of Indians in the amount of $40,245,807.02.

1988 – Brendale v. Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Nation Supreme Court decision written by Sandra Day O’Connor holds that Indian religious rights were outweighed by society’s broader interest in destroying sacred sites for economic reasons, even if such reasons were specultative.

Mni Wiconi “Indian Water Project” voted down on referendum vote on Pine Ridge Reservation. OST government goes ahead anyway.

(the White Plum account goes to the year 1998 – still transcribing and checking facts and documents here….please check back later.)

1989 – Court of Claims awards Sioux $40 million in 1868 treaty case. [The award was for compensation of aboriginal and tribal recognized land ceded to the United States under the 1868 Treaty of Ft. Laramie 15 Stat. 635. Funds to satisfy the award were appropriated June 5, 1989. Award is rejected by Charging Bear – Grand Chief Richard Grass – Spiritual Traditional representative of the LDN Nation and later followed up with documentation from Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Nation.]

Following is copy of letter (from LDN Nation files) to Mr. Everett Iron Eyes, Standing Rock Sioux, from Attorney William Veeder regarding departure of the Special Committee on Investigations from its original mandate to expose fraudulent practices by federal employees upon Indian Tribes…(see also on this site article “Profile of a Bully“)

Also in 1989 – Mario Gonalez and Jim Wilson draft the “Grey Eagle” Bill to seek return of federal lands in the Black Hills region and monetary damages, and submits bill to U.S. Congress.

1990 – P.L. 101-644 Restricts definitions of American Indian Artists to those with B.I.A. Degree of Indian blood. $1 million fine and up to 15 years in prison for individuals convicted of violations; up to $5 million fine for museums, galleries convicted of violations.

Grey Eagle Bill introduced to House by Senator Martinez receives no action due to dissention of the Sioux over both bills in Congress. Senator Martinez declines to reintroduce the bill in 1991.

100 year anniversary of the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre of Si Tanka and his people by the 7th Calvary. Si Tanka Wokiksuye follows the path to Wounded Knee under spiritual guidance for last time. Releasing of the Spirits Ceremony held.

1990’s – OST legalizes gaming on Pine Ridge Reservation.

1991 – Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Nation, a Sovereign Nation International, re-established in the ways of Oceti Sakowin – in ceremony at Bear Butte. Dynastic descendant of chiefs who signed 1851-1868 Treaty is appointed Chief of the Grand Council (Charging Bear) Richard Deo Grass.

1992 – Rejection by Lakota Nation of Funds “awarded” by Supreme Court in 1989 for sale of Black Hills.

Declaration of Sovereignty drafted by Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Nation, and unanimously signed by all Grand Council Members

July 1993 – Chief Richard Grass in Geneva as part of Working Group DRAFTING U.N. Manifesto on Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Geneva, 19-30 – “I want to thank you and the distinct Indigenous Nations of the World Community and other Nations and States involved in the Working Group, on the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. As I am here on behalf of the Lakota Nation and on behalf of my great, great Grandfather, Chief John Grass, and his grandfathers as they were Sovereigns of the Lakota Nation as Sovereigns were handed down from generation to generation. Since I am the eldest male descendant, I have inherited the Sovereign of the Lakota Nation as Sovereign of other Nations and States are recognized in International law by the Law of Nations, so henceforth, I will be standing on my God given inalienable rights that cannot be taken away or transferred. So henceforth, I will be working at that capacity on behalf of my people, the Lakota Nation…” Click here to read entire statement . Chief Grass’ continued to work, speak, write to regain the sovereign rights of his people and all Indigenous Peoples around the globe as is further documented throughout this web site.

From the Dictionary of International Law by George Gordon Coughlin, Past President, New York State Bar Association
INTERNATIONAL LAW: The branch of law that governs the relationships of nations to each other. International law stared about the sixteenth century. Its sources are customs and usages, treaties, and the decisions of such tribunals as the International Court of Justice and the International Court of Human Rights. International law is also based on various diplomatic papers written over the centuries.

1996 – U.S. Congress passes the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The new TANF law adversely affects Oglala families as South Dakota plan is one of the most punitive in the United States.

1997 – OST Constitutional Revision.

1998 – OST Council impeach two Council Representatives.

Title II of House Bill 2131 introduced into Congress by Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe and Lower Brule Sioux Tribe; land and water rights of Great Sioux Nation in 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty.

This is where Debra White Plumes’ account ends. We add further dates as a part of the Genocide history against our people and nation below:

September 2008 – United Nations passes the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples – Click here to download PDF of this Declaration and Resolution

October 10, 2010 – A scanned copy of letter Chief Grass mailed certified U.S. mail to President Barak Obama and other U.S. Government Officials July, 2010 – click here to read the letter in it’s entirety.

December 2010 – Follow-up (almost 20 years after Chief Grass began this process at Geneva in July 1993!) President Obama adopts U.N. Manifesto on Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which reads in part…

“Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired,” according to Article 26. Article 28 states that qualified groups “have the right to redress,” which can include “restitution” or “just, fair and equitable compensation” for land or resources that have been “confiscated, taken (or) occupied”… see entire document at

May 2012 – Report to the U.N. May 2012
Press Release on U.N. Officials’ Response

Interview – James Anaya, the U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has conducted the United Nations’ first-ever investigation into the plight of Native Americans living in the United States. Anaya’s recommendations include advising the U.S. to return some land to Native American tribes, including South Dakota’s Black Hills

OUR LAND, WATER, RESOURCE RIGHTS BY United Nations’ STANDARDS – See Rights of Indigenous Peoples U.N. Document regarding Free, Prior and Informed Consent

2011 – June 28 – Canadian Sioux Valley Dakotas’ Sovereignty in process of being recognized by Canadian Government!
“Sioux Valley Dakota Nation has reached the end of negotiations with the Government of Canada and the Government of Manitoba as of June 28, 2011. We are one step closer to our goal of Self-government. This is a significant achievement as it took 20 years of perseverance to get to this point. This is good news for Sioux Valley Membership and the decision is now in the hands of the oyate. The next steps will be the Ratification of the Agreements by Sioux Valley Dakota Nation members. Sioux Valley Dakota Nation will benefit because the members will regain the right to govern themselves.” MORE

Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Nations’ statement of full legal rights are covered within document

“Reclaiming the Black Hills”

2012 – December – Cobell settlement – $105M to $115M to go to class members in South Dakota (effectively “closing the book” on the colossal mis-management by the federal government of land and natural resources it held in trust for tribal members). To redress the harm done, Cobell originally asked for a dollar amount of $47 billion. In the years the lawsuit was litigated since 1996, the figure was reduced to $25 billion, then $8 billion, and ultimately $3.4 billion (no consideration for inflation since 1996 was ever made).

“The Cobell Settlement was a pittance in renumeration because the accountability of the agencies holding Indian properties, etc. in trust was so jumbled with distortions and cover-ups that the true accounting of the theft of Indian monies was indeterminable. The pittance individual Indians will receive in cash payments prior to Christmas should be a mark of shame on the history of America itself. Where was the national media in uncovering this mess?

What makes the Settlement even more unbelievable is that more than $1 billion was given back to the BIA to clear up the fractionated land conditions existing on nearly all Indian reservations, a problem created by the BIA itself. Yeah, let’s take a billion dollars from the poor individual Indians and give it back to the idiots who caused the problem to correct it their incompetence. What a travesty! And who is to blame the poor Indians for accepting the conditions of this travesty because, after all, something is better than nothing and this is all the Indians ever expected from the United States of America.” Notes from Indian Country by Tim Giago (Nanwica Kciji) published in the Native Sun News, December 5-11, 2012

CONCLUSION: The Genocide and the consistent refusal to honor the promises made in the treaties by the U.S. government leadership which were to be kept in trust until (their choice of words) the “grass stops growing and the water stops flowing” , and the continued abuse of our people, culture and sovereignty by it’s religious entities, military action, business interests, legal sidestepping and the disgraceful acts of Congress that have continued until this day, continue to result in horrendous loss of health, life, liberty, freedom, justice, our true history, culture and spiritual connection to our sacred lands along with the ongoing theft of priceless “resources” of our treaty lands since signing the Treaties of 1851 and 1868. As a result, it seems evident to all fair minded onlookers that the LDN Nation has been and continues to be BULLIED, robbed and pillaged by the United States. To date, their actions be-lie their promises, and say, in effect…. “resistance is futile. You shall be assimilated!”