Chief Richard Grass is the person who spoke for the L.D.N. Nation in rejecting the 1980 Supreme Court Ruling that offered $40 million in exchange for 40 million acres of the sacred Black Hills. Chief Richard Grass family dynasty has been involved in drafting and signing ALL the treaties. His Great Grandfather, Chief John Grass, (as a sovereign – king-) was the strategist for and went to the Battle of the Little Bighorn to protect his land and people from the deceptive and exploitive policies of the U.S. Government. They won the Battle of the Little Bighorn, thus retaining legally under International Law the lands addressed by the Louisiana Purchase.
Setting the stage of events in context of the john grass manuscripts which we hope to soon publish in a book THE KEEPING OF SACRED WORDS & FT. laramie TREATy SIGNERS LIST Webmasters’ Notes: There was a gold rush in California. People were coming from all over the world to strike it rich. During the Civil War, California was swaying between supporting slavery or not supporting it. California was desperate for the railway system to be built to tie them to the East for commerce. The government, to solidify Californias’ support of non-slavery, agreed to fund the building of the trans-continental railroad, which eventually led to many skirmishes between the plains Indians and construction crews. The Ft. Laramie Treaty was devised, as were so many of the earlier treaties before them with East Coast Indians, to steal the land from the indigenous peoples. This is the time frame and setting of the events written about in the manuscript for the hoped to be published book – John Grass, American Indian Patriot written by Angela A. Green Boleyn. Other historians have recently published well documented books from “white” perspectives regarding this time frame. The life, perspectives and experiences of Chief John Grass and the Lakota-Dakota-Nakota Nation have yet to be heard, however here are some quotes from some relevant sources that set the stage for the new book to come… “General Sherman was appointed to command the military division of the Mississippi, a designation later changed to Missouri. His headquarters were at St. Louis, Missouri and he had the responsibility for a vast stretch of the territory through which the Union Pacific (railway) would be built. As military commander for the Missouri region, Sherman was responsible for maintaining peace with the Sioux and Cheyenne and other tribes of the plains. He didn’t anticipate a great deal of trouble at first. To be sure the Indians got into scrapes with the white settlers but the settlers were usually to blame. The settlers wanted the army to kill all Indians, Sherman told Grant, “and they are trying to force the army’s hand.”… But the railroad altered the landscape of the Indians’ home permanently, and it was apparent that the Indians’ way of life was under mortal assault. Predictably the Indians struck back. In time the Sioux and Cheyenne terrorized the construction crews on the railroad. A group of Cheyennes even pulled up the rails on one stretch of the line. In short run the Indian offensive threatened to halt the railroad construction… Sherman communicated to the Indian leaders that if they wanted peace they would be allowed to live in peace, though not necessarily where they desired. On the other hand if they chose war they would get war. In September 1867 Sherman headed by a commission delegated by President Andrew Johnson to deliver precisely this ultimatum. The meeting took place at Ft. Laramie. Sherman offered no false hope that the traditional ways could be salvaged. The one decision left to the Indians was now to accept their defeat. If the Indians resisted they would be crushed. “If you continue fighting you will ALL be killed.” H.W. Brand, from book “The Age of Gold” “On the following day the great warrior Sherman addressed the Chiefs, blandly assuring them that he had thought of their words all night and was ready to give a reply. Sherman launched into a discussion into the Indians’ needs for a land of their own. Advised them to give up their dependence upon wild game and then dropped a thunderbolt: “We therefore propose to let the whole Sioux nation select their country up the Missouri River, embracing the white earth and Cheyenne River to have their lands like white people forever and we propose to keep all white men away except such agents and traders as you may choose. ” After the words had been translated why should they go back to the Missouri to starve? Why could they not live in peace where the game could still be found? Had the greedy eyes of the white man already chosen these bountiful lands for their own?… “In the Spring of 1868 … Sherman and the same peace commission returned to Ft. Laramie. This time they had firm orders from an impatient government to abandoned the forts of the Powder River road [that went to Oregon] and obtain a peace treaty with Red Cloud. They sent a personal invitation to the Ogalala leader to the peace signing. Only a few days after the agent returned to Laramie, however, a message arrived from Red Cloud. “We are in the mountains looking down on the soldiers and the forts. When we see the soldiers moving away and the forts abandoned, then I will come down and talk.” This was very embarrassing to …Sherman…they managed to obtain the signatures of a few minor chiefs…On July 29, 1868 the war department issued orders to abandonment of the Powder River Country. After two years of resistance…for a few more weeks he [Red Cloud] kept the treaty makers waiting. On November 6 he came riding into Ft. Laramie. Now a conquering hero, he would sign the treaty. For the next twenty years, however, the treaty would remain a matter of dispute. What many of the chiefs understood was in the treaty, and was actually written therein after Congress ratified it were like two horses whose colorations did not match”. Dee Brown, from book “I Left My Heart at Wounded Knee” For detailed information please see LEGAL DOCUMENTS Following are some examples of a few of the many legal documents and correspondence continually being made known and generated by Richard Grass personally and through the tribes’ International Attorney on behalf of restoration and reparations Reclaiming the Black Hills Member Bands Unrepresented Peoples Org. Alloidal Title Statement Genocide 1995 Ft. Yates Tribunal 1996 Example of U.S. Appeals Canadian Appeal International Court & Tribunals
In Canada the same issues abound and filmmakers have given us insight to the complexity of the problems involved:
Our Traditional Spiritual Form of Governance has Never Nullified the Treaties There are some among the Lakota tribes who have recently attempted to make world news by claiming to nullify the treaties and take it upon themselves to gather to set up a “new” Lakota nation outside of the spiritual, traditional and dynastic line of Chiefs. Richard Grass has never accepted grant money or funding from these groups, nor from any political entity on or off of the reservation , and on numerous occasions has spoken to support traditional Lakota,Dakota,Nakota values and the simple traditional people, still living in poverty, who still live by the ways of the ancestors in this complex and modern materialistic world. This is partly why this web site has been established, to raise awareness as well has hopefully raise funding for the work of the Grand Chief and those traditional ones who walk in a sacred manner. Perhaps the negotiations are futile, but it is the only way for a dignified and just outcome of the promises made. Currently, these issues have already reached international (U.N.) level attention, thanks to the travels and work of Chief Grass with the help of International Lawyers who are working without pay to find satisfactory resolution of the Black Hills issue. In response to attempts by several small fractional groups to gain personal material wealth or notoriety from the injustices revolving around the treaties not kept, who claim to “take over” a long established culture and nation, this webmaster has elected to include the following quote copied from an anonymous contributor from a blog at MySpace… “The old ones whose names are below were sent by their people to make their mark on the Ft. Laramie Treaty . These are not little men but, men who were sent by their people . In doing so they gave their own sacred word and the sacred word of their people to uphold the treaty. Now I hear there are those who have chosen to break the sacred words of these Grandfathers . If the words given by our old ones are to be so easily walked away from, then do we just walk away from all of their words, wisdom and teaching or just the bits and pieces that we think we know better than they did? Does it matter that the government of the United States has broken its word? For sure it does . Do we break our grandfathers words and become just like the government of the United States in that when our old ones have given their words they mean nothing to the next generation? Then we become just like them . Demand from the U.S. what we should demand from ourselves . Keeping of sacred words . I have asked before .. I will ask again .. which tribal governments represented by the old ones below have decided to break this treaty? I am only an old man with a very small voice and eyes that are fading but I see nothing of this agreeing to break the treaty by the people who now represent the same people whose names are below represented anywhere in writing . My ears are dim but I have heard nothing either . Just an old man Wanbli” Executed on the part of the Brule band of Sioux by the chiefs and headman whose names are hereto annexed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, D. T., the twenty-ninth day of April, in the year A. D. 1868. MA-ZA-PON-KASKA, his X mark, Iron Shell. WAH-PAT-SHAH, his X mark, Red Leaf. HAH-SAH-PAH, his X mark, Black Horn. ZIN-TAH-GAH-LAT-WAH, his X mark, Spotted Tail. ZIN-TAH-GKAH, his X mark, White Tail. ME-WAH-TAH-NE-HO-SKAH, his X mark, Tall Man. SHE-CHA-CHAT-KAH, his X mark, Bad Left Hand. NO-MAH-NO-PAH, his X mark, Two and Two. TAH-TONKA-SKAH, his X mark, White Bull. CON-RA-WASHTA, his X mark, Pretty Coon. HA-CAH-CAH-SHE-CHAH, his X mark, Bad Elk. WA-HA-KA-ZAH-ISH-TAH, his X mark, Eye Lance. MA-TO-HA-KE-TAH, his X mark, Bear that looks behind. BELLA-TONKA-TONKA, his X mark, Big Partisan. MAH-TO-HO-HONKA, his X mark, Swift Bear. TO-WIS-NE, his X mark, Cold Place. ISH-TAH-SKAH, his X mark, White Eye. MA-TA-LOO-ZAH, his X mark, Fast Bear. AS-HAH-HAH-NAH-SHE, his X mark, Standing Elk. CAN-TE-TE-KI-YA, his X mark, The Brave Heart. SHUNKA-SHATON, his X mark, Day Hawk. TATANKA-WAKON, his X mark, Sacred Bull. MAPIA SHATON, his X mark, Hawk Cloud. MA-SHA-A-OW, his X mark, Stands and Comes. SHON-KA-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Dog. Executed on the part of the Ogallalla band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, the 25th day of May, in the year A. D. 1868. TAH-SHUN-KA-CO-QUI-PAH, his + mark, Man-afraid-of-his-horses. SHA-TON-SKAH, his + mark, White Hawk. SHA-TON-SAPAH, his + mark, Black Hawk. EGA-MON-TON-KA-SAPAH, his + mark, Black Tiger OH-WAH-SHE-CHA, his + mark, Bad Wound. PAH-GEE, his + mark, Grass. WAH-NON SAH-CHE-GEH, his + mark, Ghost Heart. COMECH, his + mark, Crow. OH-HE-TE-KAH, his + mark, The Brave. TAH-TON-KAH-HE-YO-TA-KAH, his + mark, Sitting Bull. SHON-KA-OH-WAH-MEN-YE, his + mark, Whirlwind Dog. HA-KAH-KAH-TAH-MIECH, his + mark, Poor Elk. WAM-BU-LEE-WAH-KON, his + mark, Medicine Eagle. CHON-GAH-MA-HE-TO-HANS-KA, his + mark, High Wolf. WAH-SECHUN-TA-SHUN-KAH, his + mark, American Horse. MAH-KAH-MAH-HA-MAK-NEAR, his + mark, Man that walks under the ground. MAH-TO-TOW-PAH, his + mark, Four Bears. MA-TO-WEE-SHA-KTA, his + mark, One that kills the bear. OH-TAH-KEE-TOKA-WEE-CHAKTA, his + mark, One that kills in a hard place. TAH-TON-KAH-TA-MIECH, his + mark, The Poor Bull. OH-HUNS-EE-GA-NON-SKEN, his + mark, Mad Shade. SHAH-TON-OH-NAH-OM-MINNE-NE-OH-MINNE, his + mark, Whirling hawk. MAH-TO-CHUN-KA-OH, his + mark, Bear’s Back. CHE-TON-WEE-KOH, his + mark, Fool Hawk. WAH-HOH-KE-ZA-AH-HAH, his + mark, EH-TON-KAH, his + mark, Big Mouth. MA-PAH-CHE-TAH, his + mark, Bad Hand. WAH-KE-YUN-SHAH, his + mark, Red Thunder. WAK-SAH, his + mark, One that Cuts Off. CHAH-NOM-QUI-YAH, his + mark, One that Presents the Pipe. WAH-KE-KE-YAN-PUH-TAH, his + mark, Fire Thunder. MAH-TO-NONK-PAH-ZE, his + mark, Bear with Yellow Ears. CON-REE-TEH-KA, his + mark, The Little Crow. HE-HUP-PAH-TOH, his + mark, The Blue War Club. SHON-KEE-TOH, his + mark, The Blue Horse. WAM-BALLA-OH-CONQUO, his + mark, Quick Eagle. TA-TONKA-SUPPA, his + mark, Black Bull. MOH-TOH-HA-SHE-NA, his + mark, The Bear Hide. Executed on the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereunto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized. HEH-WON-GE-CHAT, his + mark, One Horn. OH-PON-AH-TAH-E-MANNE, his + mark, The Elk that Bellows Walking. HEH-HO-LAH-ZEH-CHA-SKAH, his + mark, Young White Bull. WAH-CHAH-CHUM-KAH-COH-KEEPAH, his + mark, One that is Afraid of Shield. HE-HON-NE-SHAKTA, his + mark, The Old Owl. MOC-PE-A-TOH, his + mark, Blue Cloud. OH-PONG-GE-LE-SKAH, his + mark, Spotted Elk. TAH-TONK-KA-HON-KE-SCHUE, his + mark, Slow Bull. SHONK-A-NEE-SHAH-SHAH-ATAH-PE, his + mark, The Dog Chief. MA-TO-TAH-TA-TONK-KA, his + mark, Bull Bear. WOM-BEH-LE-TON-KAH, his + mark, The Big Eagle. MATOH, EH-SCHNE-LAH, his + mark, The Lone Bear. MA-TOH-OH-HE-TO-KEH, his + mark, The Brave Bear. EH-CHE-MA-KEH, his + mark, The Runner. TI-KI-YA, his + mark, The Hard. HE-MA-ZA, his + mark, Iron Horn. Executed on the part of the Yanctonais band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized: MAH-TO-NON-PAH, his + mark, Two Bears. MA-TO-HNA-SKIN-YA, his + mark, Mad Bear. HE-O-PU-ZA, his + mark, Louzy. AH-KE-CHE-TAH-CHE-KA-DAN, his + mark, Little Soldier. MAH-TO-E-TAN-CHAN, his + mark, Chief Bear. CU-WI-TO-WIA, his + mark, Rotten Stomach. SKUN-KA-WE-TKO, his + mark, Fool Dog. ISH-TA-SAP-PAH, his + mark, Black Eye. IH-TAN-CHAN, his + mark, The Chief. I-A-WI-CA-KA, his + mark, The One who Tells the Truth. AH-KE-CHE-TAH, his + mark, The Soldier. TA-SHI-NA-GI, his + mark, Yellow Robe. NAH-PE-TON-KA, his + mark, Big Hand. CHAN-TEE-WE-KTO, his + mark, Fool Heart. HOH-GAN-SAH-PA, his + mark, Black Catfish. MAH-TO-WAH-KAN, his + mark, Medicine Bear. SHUN-KA-KAN-SHA, his + mark, Red Horse. WAN-RODE, his + mark, The Eagle. CAN-HPI-SA-PA, his + mark, Black Tomahawk. WAR-HE-LE-RE, his + mark, Yellow Eagle. CHA-TON-CHE-CA, his + mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare. SHU-GER-MON-E-TOO-HA-SKA, his + mark, Fall Wolf. MA-TO-U-TAH-KAH, his + mark, Sitting Bear. HI-HA-CAH-GE-NA-SKENE, his + mark, Mad Elk. FORT LARAMIE, WYOMING TERRITORY November 6, 1868. MAH-PI-AH-LU-TAH, his + mark, Red Cloud. WA-KI-AH-WE-CHA-SHAH, his + mark, Thunder Man. MA-ZAH-ZAH-GEH, his + mark, Iron Cane. WA-UMBLE-WHY-WA-KA-TUYAH, his + mark, High Eagle. KO-KE-PAH, his + mark, Man Afraid. WA-KI-AH-WA-KOU-AH, his + mark, Thunder Flying Running.